عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
1. Introduction Sport spaces are considered as types of social spaces in social settlements. These spaces can be known as one of the important parts of urban life for the health of individuals of the society in which there are functions such as the concurrent and dense presence of human population, motion, spending leisure time and the recreation of the residents of large cities and metropolises, face-to-face communication, exercising matches and athletic competitions between population groups, and holding non-sport rallies and meetings with social and sometimes political objectives (Karimi, 2006: 8). Currently, one of the most important problems in the cities of Iran is the inappropriate establishment of sport spaces among other urban users in such a way that a lot of individuals in the society, due to their inaccessibility to them, cannot use these sport spaces appropriately and solving them requires planning and management in the domains of positioning and organizing sport spaces (Ghaderi, 2002: 5). The City of Shahr-e-Kord, as the center of ChaharMahal and Bakhtiari Province, with a population of 159,775 people (Statistical Center of Iran, 2011), has an area with 35278 m2 (Youth and Sports organization ChaharMahal and Bakhtiari Province, 2014). In this city, the per capita of sport space equals 4.5 m2. In addition to the quantity of per capita, the quality of accessibility and the quiddity of positioning spaces is an important issue in planning land use. Accordingly, in the present study, the quiddity of site selection of the status quo of sport spaces in Shahr-e-Kord based on positioningcriteria are investigated. 2. Theoretical framework Sport space refers to Outdoor or indoor spaces having a limited boundary which is allocated for exercising at least a sport activity. By studying and searching in different books and researches, it can be claim that different factors are effective on positioning sport spaces. Regarding the criterion of positioning users, the most important criterion in positioning sport spaces is easy access. Another criterion of positioning sport spaces is to maintain citizensâ comfort. Sport spaces are considered as tumultuous environments and if residential, educational, and therapeutic areas are located around these spaces, Bustle of the players and spectators-which is the necessary factor of emotion and excitement due to sport activities-causes citizensâ comfort. These spaces should be placed in some places in the city where do not cause citizensâ inconvenience. By safety, it means rapid care and management of sport spaces and their users against potential dangers. This criterion is consistent with compatibility criterion, in such a way that the physical distance between sport sites and fire department, treatment centers, and etc. should be observed (Pour Mohammadi, 2006: 93). Appropriate proximity for sport centers, neighbors and neighborhood, parks, green spaces and cultural and recreational spaces, residential neighborhood and educational centers (of course with maintaining the appropriate distance) is necessary. For sport centers at area level and higher levels, in addition to the mentioned cases, highway network, good climate regions, countryside and foothills are the best proximities. Inappropriate proximity are healthcare, industrial, and workshops users as well as waste collection and disposal stations. 3. Discussion The objective of the present study is to evaluate the interaction of positioning criterion by site selection of the status quo of sport spaces in Shahr-e-Kord, and leveling sport spaces of this city. Different criteria are available for investigating positioning sport spaces. In the present study, four criteria of proximity, accessibility, safety and comfort are used. The present study is an applied one in terms of its nature and a descriptive-analytical in terms of method. Some of the research data were collected via documentary study and referring to related organizations and other data, due to the lack of spatial distribution maps of sports centers and also to make data more accurate, were collected by a field study and through observation. The research population consists of all sport spaces of Shahr-e-Kord which were investigated by mass serialization. Then, the data were classified in Excel, i.e. the positive ideas were given the coefficient 3 and negative ideas were allocated the coefficient 1. Afterwards, regarding the importance of each component (proximity, accessibility, safety and comfort) and using expertsâ ideas, in AHP model, a weight from 1 to 9 was selected. In the next stage, in TOPSIS, the rank of each one of the dimensions of site selection was obtained for all sport spaces and their importance degrees were identified. At last, the obtained importance degrees as the matrix of raw data entered Vikorâs model and the rank and degree of desirability of site selection for each space were identified. 3. 1. Proximity of sports spaces in Shahr-e-Kord Proximity is one of the most important criterion of positioning. The data related to the criterion of proximity, after weighting in AHP, were investigated using TOPSIS for leveling and determining the most appropriate space. The obtained results indicate that Enghelab Sport Complex with the degree of desirability of 0.773 is the most desirable and Takhti Sport Hall with the degree of desirability of 0.204 is the most undesirable proximity among the sport spaces in Shahr-e-Kord. Sport halls of Resalat, Bastani, HejabMultipurpose Hall and the Hall of YadgarEmam with 0.546, 0.365, 0.349, and 0.269 have second to fifth ranks respectively. The main factor affecting the above ranking is the existence of distance to the emergency centers. 3. 2. The accessibility of sports spaces in Shahr-e-Kord The dimension of the accessibility of sport spaces with four components including the existence of favorable passages, highways, and extensive parking lots and safety accessibility for old and disabled individuals were evaluated. The results of the obtained table indicate that YadgarEmam Hall with the desirability degree of 0.841 is the most desirable one and Resalat Hall with the score of 0.085 is at the lowest rank in the dimension of accessibility to site selection of sport spaces. Takhti Sport Complex, Enghlab Sport Complex, Hejab Multipurpose Hall, and Bastani Hall are at second to fifth ranks with scores 0.612, 0.413, 0.158, and 0.085 respectively. The main reason of this issue is the absence of favorable passages and also extensive parking lots. 3. 3. The safety of Sport Spaces in Shahr-e-Kord Regarding the conducted calculations, YadgarEmam Hall with the score 0.789 has the highest rank and Bastani Hall with the score 0.192 has the lowest rank. In addition, Takhti Sport Complex, Hejab Multipurpose Hall, Enghleab Hall and Resalat Sport Hall with scores 0.579, 0.564, 0.495, and 0.343 are at second to fifth ranks respectively. One of the reasons of the poor safety criterion in the mentioned sport halls is unsafety sidewalks. 3. 4. The comfort of sport spaces in Shahr-e-Kord The calculations of the researchers indicate that YadgarEmam Sport Hall with the desirability degree of 0.922 has the best state in terms of comfort criterion and Hejab Multipurpose Hal with the desirability degree of 0.206 has the worst state. Enghelab Sport Complex, Bastani Hall, Takhti Sport Complex, and Resalat Hall with scores 0.795, 0.528, 0.427, and 0.325 are at second to fifth ranks respectively. According to field investigations of the researchers, the reason of the low levels of comfort criterion is the lack of usingplant species and green spaces in moderating noise. 3. 5. Final ranking of desirability of site selection of sport spaces in Shahar-e-Kord The final stage of the process of conducting the research is to determine the most desirable sport spaces in Shahr-e-Kord. Therefore, the final data obtained from TOPSIS model identified for each of the dimension of site selection (proximity, accessibility, safety, and comfort) of sport spaces, were used for the matrix of raw data in Vikorâs model. Regarding the results obtained from Vicorâs model, YadgarEmam Sport Hall with the desirability degree 0.00 has the best state and Hejab Multipurpose Hall with the desirability degree 1 has the worst state. Enghelab Sport Complex, Takhti Sport Complex, Resalat Hall and Bastani Hall with scores 0.126, 0.457, 0.852, and 0.902 are at the second to fifth ranks respectively. 4. Conclusion In the present study, it was tried that regarding the criteria of positioning, the site selection of the status quo of the sport spaces in Shahr-e-Kord be investigated. Regarding the findings of the research, in the criterion of proximity, sport spaces of Takhti with the desirability level 0.204, YadgarEmam with 0.269, Hejab with 0.349, and Bastani with 0.365 indicated relatively low desirability level. Enghelab Sport Complex, due to having distance from educational centers, Takhti Sport Complex due to relatively low distance from industrial workshops andhigh voltage power cables and relatively high distance from emergency centers are at an undesirable level. Regarding Hejab Hall, the distance from emergency centers is relatively high. Regarding Bastani Hall, Resalat Hall and YadgarEmam Hall, the two components of distance from terminals and distance form emergency centers are at undesirable level. Regarding accessibility criterion, Bstani Hall and Resalat Hall with the desirability level 0.085 are the most undesirable sport spaces. YadgarEmam Hall with the desirability level 0.841 had the highest desirability level in accessibility criterion. The reasons of undesirability of accessibility criterion in Enghelab Sport Complex, undesirability of accessibility for old and disabled individuals, in Hejab and Resalat Halls, the two components of the absence of desirable passages and extensive parking lots has caused that the level of desirability of criteria be low in them. Regarding YadgarEmam Hall, the accessibility to extensive parking lots is at an undesirable level. Regarding the criterion of safety, Bastani Hall with the desirability degree 0.192 is at the lowest level. One of the reasons of the weakness of this space in terms of safety is inappropriate design of sidewalks. Regarding this criterion, YadgarEmam Hall with the score 0.879 is at the first rank and Takhti, Hejab, Enghelab, and Resalat Halls are at the second to the fifth ranks. In Enghelab Hall, the absence of safe sidewalks has caused that this sport space did not enjoy appropriate desirability in terms of safety. Takhti, Hejab, Resalat, and YadgarEmam, due to the lack of service buildings for controlling and monitoring and Bastani Hall due to inappropriate safety of roads and regions and due to the absence of safe sidewalks are at undesirable levels. Regarding the criterion of comfort, YadgarEmam Hall with the score 0.922 is at the first rank and Hejab Multipurpose Hall with the score 0.106 is at the sixth rank. One of the reasons of the low level of desirability regarding comfort criterion in these spaces is the lack of using plant species and green spaces to moderate noise resulting from the existence of sport spaces. It should be noted that the most degree of noise is in Takhti, Hejab and Resalat sport spaces. 5. Suggestions 1. In all sport spaces, creating vegetation and green spaces for controllingsound pollution associated with sports seems necessary. 2. It is necessary that the accessibility to all sport spaces to emergency centers be feasible. Therefore, it is suggested that inn new planning, the development of therapeutic centers to sport centers should be considered. 3. It is suggested that as much as possible, protective green space and separating Takhti Complex fromits adjacent industrial workshops be used. In addition, the observance of the scope of high-voltage power lines near this sport space is necessary. 4. Paying attention to building appropriate passages for the disabled and old individuals in Enghelab Complex and constructing overpasses and extensive parking lots for Hejab, Resalat, and YadgarEmam Halls for better accessibility seem necessary. 5. It is suggested that the increase in the safety level of the passages near Bastani Hall should be considered by urban organizations.