تأثیر روند عناصر اقلیمی در معماری و طراحی سکونتگاه های شهری مطالعه موردی : شهر اصفهان

نویسندگان

چکیده

شرایط آب و هوایی به موازات سایر عوامل محیطی از مهمترین عوامل مؤثر در شکل گیری و تکوین شهرها و تداوم حیات شهری به شمار می آید. در راستای این نگرش، هدف اصلی در این پژوهش، بررسی روند عناصر اقلیمی در شهر اصفهان و تأثیر آنها در طرح ریزی شهری می باشد. بدین منظور عناصر اقلیمی میانگین دما، دمای حداکثر، دمای حداقل، میانگین رطوبت نسبی، حداکثر رطوبت نسبی، حداقل رطوبت نسبی، بارش و سرعت باد در شهر اصفهان طی مقطع زمانی 2010-1954 در مقیاس ماهانه و سالانه مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. ابتدا سنجش بهنجاری و همگنی داده های مورد استفاده توسط آزمون های اندرسون- دارلینگ و کای اسکور انجام پذیرفت. سپس با توجه با غیرنرمال بودن داده ها از آزمون ناپارامتری من- کندال جهت محاسبه و تحلیل روند استفاده گردید. در ادامه تأثیر هر یک از عناصر اقلیمی مورد مطالعه بر معماری و سکونتگاه های شهری، بررسی و مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. با توجه به یافته های به دست آمده از این پژوهش وجود روند افزایشی در عناصر دمایی و روند کاهشی در عناصر رطوبتی و سرعت باد در شهر اصفهان تأیید شد. بدیهی است که یکی از معیارهای مهم برای ایجاد تعادل حرارتی و در نتیجه منطقه آسایش، بکارگیری استانداردهای معماری و طراحی ساختمان می باشد. با توجه به روند افزایشی دما در این شهر یکی از راهکارهای استاندارد، افزایش یا کاهش دمای درون بنا می باشد. برای نیل به این منظور می باید عوامل مؤثر در درجه حرارت فضای درونی ساختمان ها شناسایی و سپس با توجه به نیازهای حرارتی، طرح و شکلی مناسب را انتخاب تا هم تعادل حرارتی و احساس آسایش به دست آید و هم هزینه های مربوط به دستگاه های حرارتی و برودتی به حداقل خود برسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The impact of climate elements trends in architecture and design urban settlements Case Study : City of Isfahan

نویسندگان [English]

  • R. fanaei
  • h. Ataei
چکیده [English]

1- Introduction
Climate location , which is particularly suitable conditions , however, have limitations in the field of urban design as well. Exact knowledge of the target location, climate and the wisdom to know the capabilities and limitations of large -scale climatic influence in the design and utilization of urban space itself. In different spaces designed in such buildings, green spaces , walkways , etc. , in addition to paying attention to quality, performance , visual and aesthetic , according to the type of climate and climate design criteria are necessary the lack of attention to this issue is a particular problem in cities and urban activities cause Prevention of air -conditioning in buildings, monuments unbalanced utilization of natural light flooded the streets are among them . Obviously, in architecture , planning and building design elements in mind and if we observe them carefully Comfortable living conditions and life species should benefit from the convenience and comfort .

2- Theoretical Foundations
Throughout the history of architecture and construction , designers have always sought to respond to weather conditions , Even traditional architecture, design and masterly in their exact climate . Buildings located in the Zagros Mountains or in the cities of the south are protected against wind Or a traditional central courtyard house plans to keep the cold at night in hot and dry climates are designed . Indigenous and local styles of architecture , climate and human activities are considered as the basis of life and the beauty of the buildings that eventually forms it has been concluded . Factors such as temperature, humidity , wind , etc. , in the architectural style of buildings is effective. Winds in tropical climates buildings built in the right direction , so that the windows are open and the air conditioning in urban areas will be considered , External surfaces of buildings in cold regions should also be placed in the opposite direction of the prevailing wind , Double windows and walls to run a proper thickness to minimize heat exchange . Moisture in the construction and hass impact in materials selection , So exactly how environmental factors, building form , orientation vectors , streets, alleys and urban areas affects materials selection

3- Discussion
Survey the temperature of the city on a monthly scale suggests that The average temperature of the city in the months of April to July and September and October have been increased . The minimum temperature is during the months of April, May, July and October has been increased . April also increased the amount 0/18 maximum temperature of confirms . The situation is quite different from the temperature of the water element . Parameters such that the average relative humidity during the months of January to September has been a decreasing trend . The mean maximum relative humidity in the months of January to November a decreasing trend was observed. At least there is a decreasing trend in the parameter mean relative humidity during the months of January to September were approved . The parameters of rainfall during the months of June to October decreased precipitation in other months no trend was observed. Studies also showed that wind parameters during the study period in all months of the year the wind has been decreasing . In most months of the dominant wind direction is west . Average wind speed of 4/5 meters per second and a maximum rate prevailing at the year in April to 5/8 meters per second. In contrast, in November, the lowest rate is high . Wind speed of 6 meters per second per year , most of the West during the month of February, March , April and May flows . Due to its west wind and accident potential strategies for reducing its ill effects is necessary.

4- Conclusions
Findings from this study indicate that the temperature of the city in which has trend been a positive trend in contrast, the water element in the month of declines that had been trend . Wind speed over the period of the decline has been studied . Minor and short-term variation also suggests that most of the changes observed in the thermal elements The mean maximum temperature and the minimum temperature of both additive and random coincidence is rising or falling . Many changes have occurred in the moisture elements of the random drop system. The rain and wind parameters of all the random changes of decline. In relation to locating the element temperature and wind are responsible for the most part . Short -term studies suggest that minor changes in the months of February, March , April, May , October and December at all three parameters increase occurred . So that the parameters of temperature and average minimum temperature in all months of the randomized incremental changes However, the maximum temperature in the months of February and March, and the increasing trend of changes in the months of April, May , October and December of randomly increasing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mann
  • Mann-kendall test
  • Kendall test
  • Climate
  • Isfahan
  • Urban Design
  • architecture