تحلیل فضایی وضعیت مسکن در کلانشهر مشهد، با تأکید بر شاخصهای توسعه پایدار شهری

نویسنده

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر از نوع، کاربردی _ توسعه‌ای و از نظر روش توصیفی _ تحلیلی و پیمایشی بوده که با هدف سنجش و تحلیل شاخص‌های توسعه پایدار مسکن در مناطق 13گانه شهر مشهد انجام گرفته است. تعداد 68 متغیر توسعه پایدار در زمینه مسکن در قالب 5 شاخص اجتماعی، اقتصادی، کالبدی، دسترسی، زیست محیطی مورد سنجش قرار گرفتند و برای تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات از مدل تاپسیس و ضریب پراکندگی، تحلیل خوشه ای و رگرسیون چندگانه استفاده شده است. یافته های حاصل از این پژوهش نشان داد که امتیاز تاپسیس در شاخص تلفیقی(اجتماعی، اقتصادی، کالبدی، زیست محیطی و دسترسی) 41/0 بدست آمده که منطقه 11 بهترین وضعیت و منطقه 5 بدترین حالت را دارا بوده است. بررسی تطبیقی مناطق شهر مشهد بیانگر آن است که به لحاظ برخورداری از شاخص های توسعه پایدار در بخش مسکن نوعی عدم تجانس و واگرایی میان مناطق حاکم است به طوری‌که از 13 منطقه شهر مشهد 4/15 درصد در سطح برخوردار، 1/23 درصد در سطح نسبتاً برخوردار، 1/64 درصد از مناطق در سطح نیمه برخوردار و 4/15 درصد در سطح کمتر برخوردار قرار گرفته اند. بر اساس مدل رگرسیون چندگانه، بیشترین تأثیر مستقیم در دست یابی به توسعه پایدار مسکن در کلانشهر مشهد مربوط به شاخص‌های کالبدی و در مراتب بعدی شاخص‌های اجتماعی، دسترسی و زیست محیطی می باشند..

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial Analysis of Housing Situation In Mashhad , With an empasis on Urban Sustainable Development Indicators

نویسنده [English]

  • m. zanganeh
چکیده [English]

 This study,
in terms of type, Based on a
descriptive-analytical methodology, the following application-development
research aims to measure 68 sustainable development variables of
housing in 13 districts of Mashhad on the basis of social, economic, physical,
accessibility, and environmental criteria. The TOPSIS model, dispersion
coefficient, cluster analysis, and multiple regressions were used to analyze
the data. The results show that TOPSIS score in the combined index (social,
economic, physical, environmental, and accessibility) is 0.41where District 11
and 5 have the best and worst conditions, accordingly. The comparative analysis
of Mashhad’s districts illuminates that there are heterogeneity and divergence
between regions in terms of having sustainable development indices in a way
that, of 13 districts, %13 is ultra-developed, %23.1 highly-developed,
%64.1partially-developed, and %15.4 poorly-developed. According to the multiple
regression analysis, the spatial index, prior to social, accessibility, and
environmental indices, has the most direct impact on achieving sustainable
housing development. 1- Introduction  Iran’s housing programs are more or less based
quantitative aspects and there is no plan for the sustainable development yet.
Obviously, Mashhad suffers from such a lack of planning and it is far away from
achieving different aspects of the sustainable development. For example, there
are 900,000slum dwellers, 58,000 in search of residence, and 3,000 hectares of
old texture within the city’s span, along with the lack of citywide sewerage
network, population growth, increasing proportion of tenant households,
decrease of housing infrastructures, etc. Given that, it is necessary to study
the social, economic, spatial, and environmental aspects of housing in Mashhad
in terms of the sustainable urban development.   2- Theoretical bases  Urban housing is
the most important element in relation to the sustainable development of the
city, considering it is of great importance because of the housing development
in addition to environmental and social issues affecting the economy and
culture. Therefore, the pursuit of sustainable housing in order to increase and
improve the quality of life of present and future generations is a serious
matter. Today with the growing population's need for housing is growing, so to
achieve sustainable urban development based on sustainable housing can have a
constructive role. Because it can said that half of the land in our cities
allocated to residential use, but unfortunately, in our country buildings,
especially residential buildings built without regard for sustainable urban
development. Sustainable
development of human settlements and housing should be four aspects. Housing must be
environmentally sustainable. Housing must be
economically sustainable. Housing must be
sustainable socially and with regard to the culture of its inhabitants. Housing needs to be
sustainable in terms of physical and consideration of its functions,
infra-developed regions, especially regions 4, 5, 7, 3 should be a priority in
city planning and management, for sustainable development in the context of
social justice formed.  3- Discussion  To measure sustainable development indices of
Mashhad’s districts using the TOPSIS multi-criteria decision-making model, the
spatial structure of districts is analyzed based on social, economic, spatial,
accessibility, and environmental aspects. TOPSIS model results show that, of
accessibility indices, District 1 and 8 with scores of 0.89 and 0.83 and Districts
4 and 12 with scores of 0.20 and 0.14have the best and worst results,
accordingly of social indices, District 8 with 0.7821 and District 4 with
0.052 of economic indices, Districts 9 and 11 (ultra-developed) with 0.68 and
0.64 and District 4 and 5 (poorly-developed) with 0.08 and 0.10 of spatial
indices, District 11 with 0.8823 and District 7 with 0.0329 of environmental
indices, District 12 with 0.9031 and District 6 with 0.0749. Finally, the
consolidation of all five indices together (totally 68 indicators) is set to be
the basis of sustainable housing development levels. Of the consolidated index,
District 11 with the TOPSIS score of 0.8137 and District 5 with 0.0614 have the
best and worst results. Also, using the data from the consolidated index of the
TOPSIS and cluster analysis model, 13 districts of Mashhad were clustered in
four categories. Effective factors in the sustainable housing development of
Mashhad were identified using the multiple regression model. The results
indicated that the five factors of the model explained 78% changes of the
depend variability (of sustainable housing development).   4- Conclusion  * Considering 0.41 as the TOPSIS average score in consolidated
indices (1 is optimum), there are five districts above the average and the
other eight below it which confirms a long path towards fulfilling the
sustainable housing development. * Inequality Coefficient of 0.54 in the
consolidated index combination showsthat the score of 8 districts falls below
the average and 4heterogeneous clusters in the cluster analysis affirm
inequality and imbalance among the districts. * The multiple regression analysis of five indices
of the sustainable development shows that the spatial index, prior to social,
accessibility, and environmental, economic indices, has the most direct impact
on achieving sustainable housing development. * In order to establish a spatial balance as well
as social justice and to achieve the sustainable developmentin Mashhad,
Districts 5, 4, 7, and 3 should be given an undivided attention of the city
policymakers.   5- Suggestions   In developing countries as well as Iran, look
at the scientific community to sustainable development and the slogan should be
changed to culture and sustainable development, not as a theory but as a need
for paying attention to preparing the conditions for the Access to this matter
soon be fulfilled. Develop proper
management at regional level in other urban and rural areas of the province and
neighboring provinces could resolves a large part of the problems of the city.
The key to solving the metropolis alone in the city is the planning and
management of urban and rural areas of the province and outside the province. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: sustainable development indices
  • Housing
  • TOPSIS
  • urban districts
  • Mashhad