ارزیابی آسیب‌پذیری اجتماعی – فیزیکی شهرها در برابر زلزله (مطالعه موردی: شهرستان‌های استان آذربایجان غربی)

نویسندگان

1 انشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

شهرهای امروزی در نقاط مختلف دنیا به دلایل متعدد ازجمله نوع مکان گزینی، توسعه فیزیکی نامناسب، عدم رعایت استانداردهای لازم همواره در معرض خطرات ناشی از بلایای طبیعی قرار دارند. یکی از این خطرات که بسیاری از شهرهای جهان ازجمله کشور ما را تهدید می‌کند، زمین‌لرزه است. ایران یکی از زلزله‌خیزترین کشورهای دنیا محسوب می‌شود و شهرهای آن در رابطه با این پدیده طبیعی خسارت‌های مالی و جانی زیادی را متحمل شده است. استان آذربایجان غربی نیز بدلیل مجاورت با گسل‌های فعالی چون گسل شمال تبریز، پیرانشهر- سلماس، سد مهاباد و گسل‌های فعال در کشور ترکیه از این قاعده مستثنی نمی‌باشد. پژوهش حاضر، توصیفی-تحلیلی با هدف کاربردی می‌باشد. هدف این تحقیق ارزیابی آسیب‌پذیری اجتماعی - فیزیکی شهرستان‌ها استان آذربایجان غربی در برابر زلزله‌های احتمالی است. برای ارزیابی و رتبه‌بندی شدت آسیب‌پذیری از مدل TOPSIS و GIS استفاده‌شده است. میزان آسیب‌پذیری اجتماعی شهرستان‌ها در پنج گروه شامل پهنه‌های آسیب‌پذیر خیلی کم، کم، متوسط، زیاد و خیلی زیاد تقسیم شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که شهرستان ارومیه با میزان تاپسیس87/0از آسیب‌پذیری خیلی کمی در برابر زلزله به‌عنوان مرکز استان برخوردار می‌باشد و شهرستان‌های اشنویه، تکاب، پلدشت و چالدران در معرض آسیب‌پذیری خیلی زیاد با میزان تاپسیس13/0 قرار دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment the vulnerability of Social - Physical cities against earthquakes(Case Study: West Azerbaijan Counties)

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Eshghi gaharborge 1
  • s. Alavi 1
  • H. Nazmfar 2
1 Mohaghegh Ardabili
2 Ardabil-Daneshgah street- university of Mohaghegh Ardabili
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
Introduction
No point on Earth is safe from disaster and has received reports from all over the land of catastrophes and natural disasters In the 90s a number of major international crises of 4752 have arrived since 2000, more than 5584 items of great crisis in the world Gzarshshdhand (Asgari, 1385: 5) The occurrence of natural hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes are often negative impacts on human settlements still left And made them heavy casualties on people, buildings and infrastructure of these areas and destroyed the social and economic effects on societies and countries has imposed Prdamnhay (Khakpur et al., 1390: 2). During the twentieth century so devastating earthquake more than 1100 events around the globe with more than 1,000,500 deaths due to Azdstdadhand (Lantada, 2008: 2). Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt of Iran as part of a high Seismicity always been throughout history, So that different parts of the country by several devastating earthquakes is always Tkhrybshdh (Freedom, 1388: 193). 153 so that the devastating earthquake that happened in the world, 17.6 percent of Iran According to the United Nations in 2003, the country ranks first in the world in the number of earthquakes with an intensity of 5.5 on the Richter scale and has one of the highest ranks of the vulnerability caused by the earthquake and the number of people killed due to the accident, According to the same report, the earthquake in Iran, the dominant aspect of the disaster included (UNDP, 2004: 35). The only result of the latest of these, the earthquake, more than 30,000 were killed, 10,000 wounded and more than 100,000 homeless and destroyed more than 80 percent of the city, including the loss of all social infrastructure that no more than 800 million dollars to bring(National report of the Islamic,2005). What makes the accident earthquake, lack of knowledge and inability to face and deal with its human (Amini et al., 1390). To reduce vulnerability to natural hazards and achieve sustainable development, in addition to the space Mkany- nature and natural hazards, the socio-spatial differences in vulnerable communities and to identify the reasons for it. Why is that natural hazards do not automatically lead to harmful results are only the possibility of injury. While the actual damage associated with exposure and features of the receiving unit (Eternal honor Rukn, 1392: 153). Therefore, the vulnerability is not only the result of Khtrkhyzy areas, but the result of social processes - political, economic and too traumatic a final status derived from these processes.
Theoretical bases
Among all natural hazards, earthquakes are the most serious risks that are not predictable and not controlled As of 1500 years ago to now, millions of people's lives and property worth millions of dollars in America, due to the devastating earthquake Azdstdadhand The only way to escape is prepared in various ways, such as capacity building preparation, building earthquake resistant structures, and so on. One of the few areas vulnerable to seismic activities through risk assessment and damage assessment is that all kinds of major damage to the social, economic and environmental minimize Seismic Risk Analysis, a tool is required to calculate and estimate the strong ground motion parameters for possible future earthquakes is the site of interest (Rad, 1388: 78) Assessment of urban vulnerability to earthquakes that need to prepare for disaster response and planning measures has been to improve and develop the program makes clear. In addition to the importance of disaster risk assessment on disaster prevention and awareness, planning and organizing ways to reduce the damage caused by the earthquake in that direction.
Discussion
In this part of the study examines the vulnerability of socio-physical parameters Province Earthquake in Azerbaijan has been using TOPSIS. In order to prioritize and analyze province against damage caused by earthquake, TOPSIS model is used. After data collection and their combination, matrix raw data of each component in the study area is defined where X indicators are studied and A cities The spatial distribution of vulnerability in cities suggests that the city of Urmia in the range of very low vulnerability, Khoy cities mentioned, Bokan and Mahabad in the range of low vulnerability, cities Shahindezh, Salmas, tinsel, Sardasht and round in the middle vulnerability, Counties Maku, tea break and Piranshar Oshnavieh cities, Takab, poldasht and Chalderan are vulnerable, with high and very high.
Conclusion
Social and physical vulnerability of urban areas is the result of social inequalities According to the results of this study, it can be said that cities due to different structures, socio-economic and physical vulnerability to natural hazards are not the same Due to the lack of infrastructure, spatial and attribute data in the country, no accurate assessment of the vulnerability of socio-physical proper zoning and small towns in the earthquake there In this paper, to consider the social factors -Fyzyky and related factors and using multi criteria decision making and GIS, accurate assessment of the vulnerability of socio-physical province of West Azerbaijan done The results show that by using TOPSIS Urmia city as capital of the province, with first place being vulnerable favorable conditions index is too low Counties temper, mentioned, Bokan and Mahabad of low vulnerability, Shahindezh cities, Salmas, tinsel, Sardasht and round the vulnerability average, counties Maku, tea break and Piranshar Oshnavieh cities, Takab, poldasht and Chalderan thus vulnerable to high and very are high The reality is that if the objective is to study the causes of urban vulnerability to natural disasters in developing countries, including our country It must address the root causes of social inequalities, lack of proper planning, population growth and urbanization, we search these communities

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • vulnerability
  • Earthquake
  • West Azerbaijan
  • TOPSIS
  • GIS