تحلیلی بر رشد شهر و پایداری اجتماعی - اقتصادی شهرهای بزرگ (با مطالعه شهر ارومیه)

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه پیام‌نور، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه پیام‌نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

یکی از ابعاد مهم پایداری و توسعه پایدار شهری، بُعد اجتماعی آن است که با تشدید آثار زیانبار زیست‌محیطی توسعه شهری، به این بُعد پایداری کم‌توجهی شده است. هدف پژوهش حاضر تحلیل پایداری و شناخت نابرابری‌های اجتماعی- اقتصادی شهر ارومیه به موازات رشد آن در بازۀ زمانی 90-1375 است. روش تحقیق حاضر توصیفی‌ – تحلیلی و تطبیقی است. اطلاعات لازم از سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن، در محدوده بلوک‌های آماری برای سال های 1375 و 1390 تهیه شده و تعداد 30 شاخص با تحلیل عاملی ارزیابی گردیده است. برای شاخص‌سازی و انجام محاسبات از نرم‌افزارهای آماری و برای ترسیم نقشه‌ها و تحلیل Hot Spot از نرم‌افزار Arc GIS10.3 استفاده شده است. یافته‌ها بیانگر آن است که رشد شهر ارومیه سبب افزایش تعداد بلوک‌هایی با پایداری متوسط شده است و ضمن کاهش تعداد بلوک‌های با پایداری خیلی خوب و خوب، کاهش بلوک‌های با پایداری ضعیف و خیلی ضعیف را نیز از نظر شاخص‌های اقتصادی و اجتماعی به همراه داشته است. عامل ترکیبی برای سال 1390 تحلیل لکه‌های داغ برای بلوک‌های آماری سال مذکور نقاط با پایداری اجتماعی - اقتصادی خوب در مرکز شهر جایابی شده و به طرف حاشیه‌‌های شهر، از پایداری شاخص‌ها کاسته می‌شود. در سال 1390 تحلیل خودهمبستگی فضایی نیز از توزیع شاخص‌های اجتماعی - اقتصادی شهر ارومیه به صورت خوشه‌ای و متمرکز بوده است. بنابراین در توزیع شاخص‌های اقتصادی و اجتماعی، عدالت فضایی رعایت نشده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of urban growth and social- economic sustainability in the large cities (case study: Orumiyeh)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahrivar Rustayi 1
  • Esmaeil Aliakbari 2
  • Robab Hoseinzadeh 3
1 Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Assistant Professor of Tabriz University, Tabriz, I.R.IRAN
2 Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Assistant Professor of Payame Noor University, Tehran, I.R.IRAN
3 Department of Geography and Urban planning, PhD Student of Payame Noor University, Tehran, I.R.IRAN
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract

1. Introduction

Rapid urban growth and rapid urbanization in recent decades has led to changes in the structure of human settlements and has created enormous economic and social changes, and this factor, reveals the importance of sustainable development and urban sustainability. Sustainable urban development theory is the necessary preconditions for today’s urban planning. However, in the literature of sustainable development, that is derived primarily from the environmental movement, Social and economic aspects of sustainability, less considered and generally regarded as a tool to achieve sustainable development. While Sustainability, is the Interaction of all three social, economic and environmental aspects of it. Urban population growth on the one hand and the formation of massive migration due to economic growth and spatial imbalance between rural and urban cities, towns and cities, on the other hand, was led to the physical growth of cities, especially large cities. So that the growth of the city, in many parts of the country, outpaced from population growth, and cities were faced with major environmental, social and economic challenges. In addition, the loss of agricultural land and environmental destruction caused by rapid growth and urban sprawl, also Social and economic aspects of this growth, with influence on the price of land and housing Followed by the lack of balanced distribution of services and Facilities, growth suburbanization and informal settlements, causes class gap and the issues of north - south urbanization in the city, Economic and Social Damages, and eventually leads to social segregation. Therefore, if the growth of the city was not accompanied with proper planning and management, could endanger the urban sustainability. In the city of the Orumiyeh, reduction of urban density and increasing of population growth and migration (27,000 immigrants in the first ten months of 2013) cause the sprawl Growth of the Orumiyeh city. Considering that, the Orumiyeh city, sometimes known as Metropolis, the sprawl growth of this city, have negative social, economic and environmental consequences and by turning it into a metropolis, this problem is more widespread and become an urban dilemma. Therefore, identification of unstable blocks from social and economic dimension could be an important step for moderated effective factors on the sustainability of the Orumiyeh city.

2. Theoretical basis

Social Sustainability Definition presented by Sajs. This term refers to the medium Level of Social homogeneity, Equal distribution of Income, Employment, Equal access to Resources and Social Services as well as Issues such as Participation in the decision-making process and Social Cohesion. There is little consensus on the definition of social sustainability and many varied definitions have been proposed. Such variation can be explained by one of the following reasons: The definition of social sustainability is classified in three groups:

Definitions of Conditions

In the first group usually describe social sustainability as either a currently existing positive condition, or as a goal that remains to be achieved stated that policies contributing to social sustainability.

Definitions of Measurement Framework

In the second group, definitions utilize measurement frameworks. These definitions present main principles and dimensions and often involve a series of indicators.

Attributes of Social Sustainability Definitions

Future focus and process are the two most imperative attributes in preciseness and usefulness of urban social sustainability discussions. Future focus refers to the improvement of a just society for current and future generations.

3. Discussion

This study was descriptive, analytical and comparative. Using the software SPSS, 30 socio-economic indicators, were factor analyzed. Parameters are loaded in each factor that are top of 0.5 form same factor. The result was the reduction of 30 indicators, in to 6 effective factors in 1996. And 6 factor mentioned explain 84.47% of the variance. As a result of factor analysis to 30 indicators in 2011, was the reduction it in to 7 effective factors. 7 factors mentioned explain 83.9% of variance. By comparing the combined factor of 1996-2011 and check the availability levels of statistical blocks, the results show blocks with very good stability in 1996 years, from 1.65 percent to 0.6 percent in 2011 and blocks with good stability from 10.48 to 5.18 has decreased. The percentage of blocks with medium stability has increased and reached from 68.19 to 79.19 percent in 2011. Blocks with

Poor stability, reached from 19.55 percent to 14.95 percent And blocks with very poor stability have a slight decrease from 0.15% (6 blocks) to 0.08 percent (5 blocks) has decreased.

4. Conclusion

The pattern of growth in Orumiyeh by using the Holdren model showed that 66 percent of the urban growth caused by population growth and 34% of horizontal growth and has been dispersed. Using factor analysis and study for two periods in 1996 and 2011 show that the growth of Orumiyeh city has increased number of medium stable blocks. And on the other features of blocks have reduction effects. By combining factors that were extracted by factor analysis and the creation a combination factor for 2011, Hot spots analysis for the statistical blocks for mentioned year was done. Result shows that the place with good socio-economic stability has located in the city center and from center to the side edges of the city, from stability of indicators has reduced.

5. Suggestions

According to location of the unstable points on outskirts, Officials and custodians of city as much as possible Prevent unplanned and unauthorized construction of the municipality.

With a balanced distribution of services in all cities in the province, especially in rural areas to control migration and the growth of the city and thereby prevent the growth of socio-economic instability.

Proper oversight of urban plans, particularly in the context of demographic predictions wrong and assign space to accommodate a population that is still not the extent, should be very serious

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sustainable Development
  • social sustainability
  • economic sustainability
  • the Statistical blocks
  • the city of Orumiyeh