The Comparative Pattern of Poverty Spread in Kermanshah City in 1996-2006 using Factor Analysis Technique

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Abstract

  The Comparative Pattern of Poverty Spread in Kermanshah City in 1996-2006 using Factor Analysis Technique     Sh. Roustaei, M. Ahadnezhad, A. Asghari Zamani, A. Zangene   Received: March 07, 2011/ Accepted: September 13, 2011, 5-8 P      Extended abstract   1- Introduction   Cities are usually associated with economic growth and development, because the consequences of social inequality, poverty, rising crime and corruption, environmental crises, inequality and class differences, lack of social security, early childhood and maternal mortality, poor housing and homelness, informal settlements, ete ... can be noted in this format. Income countries and international financial institutions. Decreasing poverty is a global concern, and in fact one of the main     goals of low-Poverty comes from the mechanisms governing the complex urban system, these mechanisms instead of reduce inequalities in Third World countries, have intensified it.   The issue is very important in making social policy. Studies show our conntry has been Ineffective in eliminating poverty and solving this issue and is facing many challenges. Lack of policy decisions, hasty, high volume and speed of urbanization has brought poverty to the position of passivity, in Iran and especially the city of Kermanshah.     2- Theoretical bases   Different definition, approaches, researches and various studies were provided about poverty in different aspects. Defining poverty and especially poverty, is not only a scientific subject, but also a political one. Political economy, structuralism and social approaches are among the approaches used to evaluate the extent of poverty in urban communities.     3– Discussion   In Comparison analysis of poverty spatial distribution of Kermanshah in 2006 with 1996 it is shown shows that in 1996 the most important factor in poverty measuring was related to economic, cultural, physical and social factors while in 2006 the most important factors were to economic, cultural, physical and social ones. The difference indicates the poverty growth in city blocks because of this factors. In another view in 1996 121 blocks very well (3%), 266 blocks was affluent(6%), 3854 blocks were Middle (80%), 64 blocks were poor (1%) and 461 blocks were very poor (10%), but in 2006, 612 blocks were very well (8%), 1653 blocks affluent(20%), 2392 blocks Middle (29%),1744 blocks poor (22 %), 1687 blocks very poor (21%) , so many changes can be seen. In the other words in very well group there had been 5% increase and in affluent class 16% growth but Middle class was decreasd by 49% in 2006 and finally poor group that was only 1% in 1996 increased to 21% and very poor class also had 11% growth in 2006.   The results indicated that in Khermanshah city from 1996 to 2006 very poor class has been increased to from 10% 21%, Middle class from 80% to 29% and affluent class from 6% to 20%. According to diagrams decreasing of middle class and increasing in poor and affluent class indicate wrong policy during the study era.       4- Conclusion   The comparative study of urban regions and assessment of systems and sub-systems such as comparatives assessment of urban blocks regarding spatial analysis of poverty can help planner and policymakers in making decisions and implementation of appropriate programs for reducing inequality and increasing social justice in the society.   Based on the results of this study which is done for the purpose of poverty spatial measurement in the Kermanshah city based on the information from statistical blocks in 1996-2006, in 1996 among poverty measurement factors the socio- economic cultural factor is identified as the most important one that has the maximum difference comparing with other factors indicating extreme inequality in this city. On the other hand the minimum difference is devoted to economic- physical - cultural factor. But the results for 2006 show that socio- economic- cultural- physical factor is the most important factor and highest difference is related to economic - physical factor indicating the formation of inequality in Kermanshah city.   The Analysis of the spatial distribution of poverty suggests that inequality is increasing on and on, social separation is happening and the city goes toward polarity it indicates that border cities have been deprived from investment on infrastructures. The results of comparative analysis of spatial organization of urban poverty in Kermanshah during 1996-2006 indicate significant changes in society and poverty growth reflects to weak operations in this region.     5- Suggestions   In order to overcome the current problems of poverty, according to the present conditions these strategies are recommended:   Forming local associations to manage mechanisms solve the problems of citizens.   Forming municipal offices urban areas, in which implement appropriate mechanisms in joint management with local communities.   Changes in the public sector to provide unilateral public services in order to facilitate the sharing of other sectors   Widespread culture making, especially in the public sector with regards to poverty.   Doing appropriate research with regard to poverty with proper guidance and support from the government poverty.   Having comprehensive approach to take actions and integrate physical- social- economic and cultural findings.   Raising culture of the city residents and officials to correct the negative approach to the issue of poverty in order to achieve the conditions for the poor to access facilities and opportunities.   Key words: Spatial organization, Urban Poverty, GIS, Kermanshah     References   Afrough, E. 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